Calligraphy and Paper: Identification of paper baskets

The materials and paper used in paintings and calligraphy play a role in the generation of calligraphy and painting. The identification of paper and paper is another way to identify calligraphy and painting. According to current research by scholars and scholars, the late Zhou Dynasty paintings and the Chu Kingdom tomb paintings of the Warring States period and the later Mawangdui Han tomb paintings were all painted on finer monofilaments and have not been used to date. (Ie the warp is double wire, and the weft is monofilament weave). From the Five Dynasties to the Southern Song Dynasty, there was development and change over the previous generation. On the surface, in addition to monofilament defects, double-filament defects have also emerged. The warp of this double wire is a group of two wires each having about one fiber gap between two groups, and the weft is a monofilament.

In fact, the Yuan Dynasty's 绢 绢 说 说 说 说 说 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 绢 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。. The general public in the Ming Dynasty also seemed to be rough. In the early and middle period of the Ming Dynasty, there was a kind of low-quality and relatively thin beryllium. Because this kind of delicacy is too thin to be easy to set off, the painter often puts it on paper and then carries on painting and calligraphy.

Paper material is another criterion for judging the age of painting and calligraphy. Han and Jin ancient papers are all made of hemp materials. Most of them are reborn using waste materials such as linen, sacks, hemp shoes, and fish nets. They also use hemp in the north and hemp in the south. It is characterized by a relatively coarse fiber, so it is also difficult to be fine, it is no light, no hair, round fiber bundles, and sometimes see lignin. Most of the paintings of the Tang dynasty, the Tang dynasty, and the Five Dynasties used hemp papers. The Tang dynasty Lan Ting Xu, Du Mu's Zhang Chang's Poems, which we see today, and the large volume of Tang dynasty scrolls from Dunhuang were all true. Since the Northern Song Dynasty, it has decreased sharply. However, the papers of the Northern Liaojin also use hemp. Later, almost no paper was used for painting and calligraphy.

During the Tang and Tang dynasties, they began to see paper made from bark, mostly made of ebony or ebony bark. They are characterized by finer fibers, and at the same time, they are finely crafted with the development of handicrafts. This kind of material is also dark and dull. It is only slightly brighter than hemp paper. The fiber bundles are flat and slightly papery. There are also papers made from mulberry bark, which are characterized by finer fibers, brighter, longer paper lengths, and flat fiber-shaped bundles. Since the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, a large amount of bark paper has appeared in calligraphy ink. After that, bark paper is produced throughout the country. The use of bamboo material for painting began in the Northern Song Dynasty. Bamboo is hard and hardest to pulp. Predecessors cannot handle it, so they are not used. The bamboo materials used for papermaking have the finest fibers, bright hairs, fiber bundles or hard thorns, and corners outside the corners. After the middle period of the Northern Song Dynasty, the raw materials for the calligraphy and painting paper were all available, so it was not easy to distinguish between the times before and after the paper.

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